RESEARCH PAPER

 

RESEARCH PAPER REPORT
ON
IMMUNOLOGICAL DISORDERS AND THEIR REMEDIES

 

Submitted to
TEACH TO LEARN
UTTAR PRADESH

By
SATAKSHI BISHT
B.SC ,Home Science pass out 2020
Under guidance of
Manish Singh
(Mentor )
Tower2/808,opposite madhubani colony
Signature of mentor

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Term Paper report entitled IMMUNOLOGICAL DISORDERS AND THEIR REMEDIES submitted to teach to learn carried out in partial fulfillment for the task and work carried out by Ms. Satakshi Bisht
No part of this project work has been produced elsewhere for any degree or

Signature of founder
ASTHA VERMA
SHEIKH AASIF

 

DECLARATION

I, SATAKSHI BISHT , student of B.SC HOME SCIENCE hereby declare that the report entitled “IMMUNOLOGICAL DISORDERS AND THEIR REMEDIES” which is submitted by me teach to learn in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of the Lerner of the week
The author attests that permission has been obtained for the use of any copy righted material appearing in the Dissertation / Project report other than brief excerpts requiring only proper acknowledgment in scholarly writing and all such use is acknowledged.

 

Place: Moradabad Name: SATAKSHI BISHT

Date: 26.2.2.21

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The satisfaction that accompanies that the successful completion of any task would be incomplete without the mention of people whose ceaseless cooperation made it possible, whose constant guidance and encouragement crown all efforts with success. I would like to express my sincere gratitude and thank ASTHA AMANATH AND ATIF SHEIKH Dean (AIB) for giving me the opportunity to undertake this project. I would like to thank my mentor Guide MR.MANISH SINGH who is the biggest driving force behind my successful completion of the project. He has been always there to solve any query of mine and also guided me in the right direction regarding the project. Without his help and inspiration, I would not have been able to complete the project. Also I would like to thank my inter mates who guided me, helped me and gave ideas and motivation at each step.

 

(Signature of Student) Date: 26.2.2021

SATAKSHI BISHT

 

 

ABSTRACT

Our immune system maintains the health of our whole body. The ability of a body to fight against any disease, infection, biological invasion, allergy, etc is conferred by immune system, called immunity. Therefore, any kind of disruptions or malfunction in the immune system can result to immune system dysfunction which leads to various diseases and disorders, hence immunological disorders.
The state or capability to fight against contagious diseases is compromised or is not present in the immune system, which directs straight to immune system disintegration. Our immune system acts as a defense mechanism to the harmful invaders or infections. Therefore, if the immune system weakens, the body becomes vulnerable to various infections hence resulting to diseases and disorders. This is all caused by poor nutrition and habits, too much active immune system, getting affected by some disease which weakens immune system or to be born with a weak immune system.
Mostly, immunological disorders are hard to cure, as immune system is disintegrated, but still there are methods and treatments, remedies which depends on the type of disorder.

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

•Cover page
•Certification
• Declaration
• Acknowledgement
• Abstract
• Table of Contents
1. Introduction: Immune System
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2. Immune System and Immunity
3. Immunological Disorder
4. Diagnose and remedy

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• Conclusion
• References
INTRODUCTION

Our human body has a heft amount of an army or a shield that protects us from various threats. These threats can come in the form of: Entry of germs, mechanical injuries and other fine fragments of dust and many foreign substances which can harm. This distinctive army is called the Immune System.
Every day, we confront a very large number of microbes like bacterias, viruses, or many disease causing micro- organisms. Nevertheless, we never fall sick daily or every day which is owing to our immune system, it is constructed in suck away that is has troops of cells which are always prowling in our body, and prepared to protect us from the harmful attacks. The immune system is the basic defense mechanism in the system of our body. Our immune system maintains the health of our whole body. It has the ability to fight against any disease, infection, biological invasion, allergy, etc which is conferred by it.
Fig.1.1
In spite of getting encircles by the harmful micro- organisms, toxins and the combination of our own body cells i.e, (forming a huge mass of cells into tumor cells), our human system is controlled to keep it all together, and largely responsible to this ability is our immune system. It works cooperatively in order to create a response which is directed through the immune system itself, that protect our body from micro- organisms, removes the toxic substances and eradicates the tumor cells. It has a ability to recognize or acknowledge a threat, ascend a response or attack, removes the microbes which cause the problem and forms a mechanism to recall the threat which offended the body system if it happens to it reappear again.
Fig.1.2

IMMUNE SYSTEM

Immune system is the basic defense mechanism system of our body and guards us from many harmful diseases and microbes or pathogens. The immune system is composed of different types of body cells and various proteins, wgich can kill the harmful invading micro- organisms and prevents and guards our body from diseases.
Fig.2.1
The comprehensive function of the immune system is to intercept or halt any kind of infections. The functionality works in a manner that whenever the immune system first acknowledges the invasion from any type of pathogen, it directs to the response capability to get to the grip with the situation. Unfortunately, If the immune response which was to be directed cannot be delivered or activated, problems arise like infections, diseases or disorders. On the other hand or whereas, when a response from the immune system is activated or triggered without any real warning or harm or is not switched off once the danger swipes away, various alarming situations or problems arises such as allergic reactions, auto-immune diseases, failure of defense mechanism.
The basic structure of defense mechanism i.e, Immune System, essentially consitutes of three main layers of defense which protects our body from the different kinds of attacks from micro- organisms and even non- living things like toxins, metals, etc.
Each layer of immune system has contrasting mechanisms of the ability (immunity). Hence, when the most above layer is invaded or breached, the mechanism of the layer which is below it comes into action or gets activated until the attack is successfully controlled.
The first and the basic layer of immune system is the BARRIER IMMUNITY, below it is the INNATE IMMUNITY, and at last we have the ADAPTIVE/ ACQUIRED IMMUNITY.
• Barrier Immunity
The first layer of defense in human immune system is the barrier immunity and the most important part of it is skin, which is considered as the largest organ of human body. It acts as a physical barrier to prevent the entry of pathogens. It also acts a chemical and biological barrier, which secerts anti- microbial proteins, contains immune cells to prevent the invading of micro- organisms.

Fig.2.2

• Innate Immunity
This type of immunity is already present in our body, at the time we are born. It is an older evolutionary defense mechanism or strategy. It is non- specific. It consists of different types of cells: Neutrophils, Basophils, Mast Cells, Eosinophils, Dendritic Cells, Monocytes, Natural Killer Cells, Macrophages. All these cells comes under the WBC’s, which helps in the defense mechanism.

Fig.2.3
• Acquired Immunity
It is a specific immune system, which is consituted of very highly systematic cells which removes the microbes or the pathogens or tries to eradicate their development or growth. This type of immunity is not present since birth but is formed in action to the exposure to any kind of foreign substances. It is mainly composed of the lymphocytes and anti- bodies.

Fig.2.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Immunological Disorders

Immunological disorders- It is a term which comes under the branch Immunology(study of immune system). Our immune system maintains the health of our whole body. The ability of a body to fight against any disease, infection, biological invasion, allergy, etc is conferred by immune system, called immunity. Therefore, any kind of disruptions or malfunction in the immune system can result to immune system dysfunction which leads to various diseases and disorders, hence immunological disorders.
Fig.3.1
The state or capability to oppose our body against infections or diseases is traded off or is not present in the immune system. Our immune system acts as a defense mechanism to the harmful invaders or infections. Therefore, if the immune system weakens, the body becomes vulnerable to various infections hence resulting to diseases and disorders. This is all caused by poor nutrition and habits, too much active immune system, getting affected by some disease which weakens immune system or to be born with a weak immune system.
Fig.3.2

 

Cause of Immunological Disorders

The primary function of an immune system is to safeguard one’s own body from the infections, mutated cells and diseases.Our health and immune system are directly related. The stronger the immune system, the more protection our body will have against pathogens or disease causing microbes. On the other hand, a weak immune system basically weak immunity of our body will be more vulnerable to diseases.

Fig.4.1
Various factors can make our immunity weaker and render us to diseases or disorders. Many daily bad habits, leading to an unhealthy lifestyle can cause the immunological disorders. And each immune system vary from person to person, depending upon immunity performance, it dictates one’s own body’s capacity to fight against the diseases.
Few factors, which are quite surprising, but still can lead to immunological disorders, they are, too much active immune system, can cause allergies and hypersensitivity, which comes under the disorders and sometimes to be born with a weak immune system can lead to fatal survival for one’s body.
FTypes Of Immunological Disorders

Considering the classification of Immune System Disorders, they are as follows on the basis of disorders:
• HYPERSENSITIVITY- An overactive immune system can lead to hypersenstivity or allergic reactions to foreign substances which are not harmful. Allergies, can further be divided into-
1. Type I Hypersensitivity
2. Type II MMUNO- DEFICIENCY DISORDER- The malfunction of immune system leads to disruption in immune responses, affecting its mechanism. Its further division leads to-
1. Genetic and Congenital Deficiencies
2. Deficiencies caused by Infections
3. Deficiencies caused by Malnutrition
4. Deficiencies caused by Drug Therapy
5. Deficiencies associated with Limited Environmental Exposure.
• AUTO- IMMUNE DISORDERS- When an immune system destroys its own healthy body cells, arising a condition of abnormal immune response. There are various disorders resulting through this example- Hemolytic anemia, Rheumatoid arthritis, Multiple sclerosis, and many more.

Fig.5.0

Hypersensitivity

Our immune system is designed in a way so that it can identify foreign particles. Sometimes, the immune system malfunctions detecting non- self cells or the molecules and fails to differentiate between self- molecules or cells and non-self molecules or cells, which results in the destruction of our own body cells through the immune reactions. Those intolerant immune reactions leads to hypersensitivity.
Hypersensitivity reactions are further categorized into-
• Type I Hypersensitivity
In type I of hypersensitivity, the antigen that is usually an external factors or allergen for example, pollen grains or pollen or certain food substances or molecules that gets binded to IgE antibodies which are attached on the veneer of basophlis or mast cells. This binding of antigen- antibody induces a torrent of many intracellullar reactions that results in the extrication of huge amount of histamine which is present in the storage vesicles, therefore, the release of histamine induces a various and different types of allergic reactions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preventions of Immunological Disorders

The main cause of these above mentioned immunological disorders is the lack of functioning of the immune system, disintegration of immune system, immune system being too hyper active and also due to some genettic and hereditary problems.
The various categories of the disorders consists of some preventions:
1. Avoid the toxins.
2. Eating a healthy food with proper diet which contains all types of nutrients.
3. Maintaining a healthy system inside our body, with an appropriate BMI.
4. Quiting the bad habits.

 

 

 

Diagnosis And Remedy/Treatment Of Immunological Disorders

Mostly, immunological disorders are hard to cure, as immune system is disintegrated, but still there methods and treatments which depends on the type of disorder:
1. Use of anti- inflammatory drugs.
2. Medication of immuno-suppressant drugs.
3. Therapies like physical therapy, immuno-therapy.
4. Treatment for the deficiency.
Fig.7.1

Categorizing the treatments and remedies on the basis of different types of disorders and their diagnosis:
• Hypersensitivity
This type of disorder can be controlled through the use of anti- histamines. One can always avoid the substances or the particles by staying away from them, so that it dosen’t triggers. Proper medications, Immunotherapy, if someone is highly hypersensitive, he/ she can always carry a shot of an emergency epinephrine. Natural remedies like herbal teas, nutritionist diet are always welcome.
This disorder can always be diagnosed by blood test or skin test, for the detection of a particular allergen.
• Immuno- Deficiency Disorders
This type of disorder can only be prevented by proper diet, sanity conditions. Treatments are specific for various disorders and the one’s which are mainly used are Ig replacement, antibiotics can be used, immunoglobulin therapy, bone marrow transplant, antiviral drugs, injections of interferon in some cases, antiretroviral drugs are also used sometimes.
Tests can be done for diagnosis, antibody test, t- cells count, few tests based on medical history, white blood cell count can be done.

• Auto- Immune Disorders
There are no tests so far which can detect auto- immune disorders. However, if someone persists the symptoms so, Antinuclear Antibody Test can be used to diagnose it. Blood tests can be done for the detection of auto- antibodies.

Since, there are large numbers of auto- immune diseases or disorders it is hard for anyone to diagnose one because the symptom’s of one can overlap with the other.
No such treatments can cure auto- immune disorders but still it can be controlled by the use of various drugs like non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, immune- suppressing drugs.

Fig.7.2

 

 

 

CONCLUSION
As well said, “ suppressing is better then cure”

References

Web Links:

www.healhline.com
en.wikipedia.org
www.google.com
www.nature.com
www.longdom.org

 

 

Image Source:
All the above images used in the report are being taken from google itself.
-SATAKSHI BISHT (TASK 13)

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