Chandrayaan is a Hindi word, which means “moon craft” which means something related to the moon. So, Chandrayaan is a series of Indian Lunar space probes.

During Chandrayaan-1 operated in 2008-2009 ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) found water on the moon and mapped the moon in visible, infrared, and X-ray light from lunar orbit. It took the help of reflected radiation to prospect for ice, minerals, and various other elements. Chandrayaan-2 was launched in 2019, which was the first lunar lander designed by ISRO.


On 22 October 2008 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Andhra Pradesh launched 590-kg Chandrayaan-1 then probe boosted into an elliptical polar orbit around the Moon, of the range 504 km–7,502 km (closest to farthest) and later descended to 100km orbit.


Chandrayaan-1 launched MIP ( Moon Impact Probe) whose aim was to test systems for landing and study atmosphere before crashing on Moon’s surface, and it was a great success that before crashing it detected water on the moon. Chandrayaan-1 operations ended on August 28, 2009, though it was originally planned for 2 years.




Then on 22 July 2019, Chandrayaan-2 was launched by Geosynchronous Satellite from Sriharikota. This spacecraft consisted of 3 basic parts with different functionality. Those are an orbiter, a lander, and a rover. The orbiter with revolves around the moon’s orbit for one year at the height of 100km. The lander named Vikram after the name of its founder(Vikram Sarabhai) was to be landed in the south region on September 7, to find water ice under surface.

If things would work according to the planning, then India would be the fourth country to land its spacecraft on the Moon. Pragyan was inside Vikram, which weighed 27-kg. The work of both Vikram and Pragyan was to operate for 14 days (1 lunar day). Mission was almost about to complete but unfortunately, contact was lost just before Vikram was about to touch the Moon at an altitude of 1.2 km.

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